Tuesday, October 18, 2016

Mother's Prayers to the Rain God and the Sun God

Courtesy: Learning with the Mother by Tara Jauhar,
pp. 155-156, Sri Aurobindo Ashram, Delhi Branch

Sunday, October 9, 2016

Song of the Sun God

Surya, Sun God

Surya Savitri, Creator and Increaser - Sri Aurobindo

Sri Aurbindo teaches the significance of Surya Savirti – the Sun God – in his book The Secret of the Veda.  Verse 81 of the Rig Veda teaches that Surya is the seer, the revealer.  Surya enlightens the mind and the thoughts with the illuminations of the Truth.

Surya Savitri, Creator and Increaser
Rig Veda V.81

1. Men illumined yoke their mind and they yoke their thoughts to him who is illumination and largeness and clear perceiving. Knowing all phenomena he orders, sole, the Energies of the sacrifice. Vast is the affirmation in all things of Savitri, the divine Creator.
2. All forms he takes unto himself, the Seer, and he creates from them good for the twofold existence and the fourfold. The Creator, the supreme Good, manifests Heaven wholly and his light pervades all as he follows the march of the Dawn.
3. In the wake of his march the other gods also reach by his force to the greatness of the Divinity. He has mapped out the realms of earthly light by his mightiness,—the brilliant one, the divine Creator.
4. And thou reachest, O Savitri, to the three luminous heavens; and thou art utterly expressed by the rays of the Sun; and thou encompassest the Night upon either side; and thou becomest by the law of thy actions the lord of Love, O God.
5. And thou art powerful for every creation; and thou becomest the Increaser, O God, by thy movings; and thou illuminest utterly all this world of becomings. Shyavashwa has attained to the affirmation of thee, O Savitri.(1)

Indra with his shining hosts, the Maruts, Agni, the divine force, fulfiller of the Aryan sacrifice, are the most important deities of the Vedic system. Agni is the beginning and the end. This Will that is knowledge is the initiator of the upward effort of the mortal towards Immortality; to this divine consciousness that is one with divine power we arrive as the foundation of immortal existence. Indra, lord of Swar, the luminous intelligence into which we have to convert our obscure material mentality in order to become capable of the divine consciousness, is our chief helper. It is by the aid of Indra and theMaruts that the conversion is effected. The Maruts take our animal consciousness made up of the impulses of the nervous mentality, possess these impulses with their illuminations and drive them up the hill of being towards the world of Swar and the truths of Indra. Our mental evolution begins with these animal troops, these “Pashus”; they become, as we progress in the ascension, the brilliant herds of the Sun, rays, the divine cows of the Veda. Such is the psychological sense of the Vedic symbol.
But who, then, is Surya, the Sun, from whom these rays proceed? He is the Master of Truth, Surya the Illuminator, Savitri the Creator, Pushan the Increaser. His rays in their own nature are supramental activities of revelation, inspiration, intuition, luminous discernment, and they constitute the action of that transcendent principle which the Vedanta calls Vijnana, the perfect knowledge, the Veda Ritam, the Truth. But these rays descend also into the human mentality and form at its summit the world of luminous intelligence, Swar, of which Indra is the lord.
For this Vijnana is a divine and not a human faculty. Man’s mind is not constituted of the self-luminous truth, like the divine mind; it is a sense-mentality, Manas, which can receive and understand (2)Truth, but is not one with it. The light of knowledge has to present itself in this human understanding tempered so as to suit its forms to the capacities and limitations of the physical consciousness. And it has to lead up progressively to its own true nature, to manifest successive evolutionary stages for our mental development. Therefore the rays of Surya, as they labour to form our mental existence, create three successive worlds of mentality one superimposed on the other,—the sensational, aesthetic and emotional mind, the pure intellect and the divine intelligence. The fullness and perfection of these triple worlds of mind exists only in the pure mental plane of being,(3) where they shine above the three heavens, as their three luminosities. But their light descends upon the physical consciousness and effects the corresponding formations in its realms, the Vedic, earthly realms of light. They also are triple, tisrah the three earths. And of all these worlds Surya Savitri is the creator.
We have in this figure of various psychological levels, each considered as a world in itself, a key to the conceptions of the Vedic Rishis. The human individual is an organised unit of existence which reflects the constitution of the universe. It repeats in itself the same arrangement of states and play of forces. Man, subjectively, contains in himself all the worlds in which, objectively, he is contained. Preferring ordinarily a concrete to an abstract language, the Rishis speak of the physical consciousness as the physical world, earth, Bhu, Prithivi. They describe the pure mental consciousness as heaven, Dyaus, of which Swar, the luminous mind, is the summit. To the intermediate dynamic, vital or nervous consciousness they give the name either of Antariksha, the intermediate vision, or of Bhuvar,—multiple dynamic worlds formative of the Earth.
For in the idea of the Rishis a world is primarily a formation of consciousness and only secondarily a physical formation of things. A world is a loka, a way in which conscious being images itself. And it is the causal Truth, represented in the person of Surya Savitri, that is the creator of all its forms. For it is the causal Idea in the infinite being,—the idea, not abstract, but real and dynamic,—that originates the law, the energies, the formations of things and the working out of their potentialities in determined forms by determined processes. Because the causal Idea is a real force of existence, it is called Satyam, the True in being; because it is the determining truth of all activity and formation, it is called Ritam, the True in movement; because it is broad and infinite in its self-view, in its scope and in its operation, it is called Brihat, the Large or Vast.
Savitri by the Truth is the Creator, but not in the sense of a fabrication or mechanical forming of things. The root of the word means an impulsion, a loosing forth or sending out,—the sense also of the ordinary word for creation, —and so a production. The action of the causal Idea does not fabricate, but brings out by Tapas, by the pressure of consciousness on its own being, that which is concealed in it, latent in potentiality and in truth already existent in the Beyond.
Now the forces and processes of the physical world repeat, as in a symbol, the truths of the supraphysical action which produced it. And since it is by the same forces and the same processes, one in the physical worlds and the supraphysical, that our inner life and its development are governed, the Rishis adopted the phenomena of physical Nature as just symbols for those functionings of the inner life which it was their difficult task to indicate in the concrete language of a sacred poetry that must at the same time serve for the external worship of the Gods as powers of the visible universe. The solar energy is the physical form of Surya, Lord of Light and Truth; it is through the Truth that we arrive at Immortality, final aim of the Vedic discipline. It is therefore under the images of the Sun and its rays, of Dawn and day and night and the life of man between the two poles of light and darkness that the Aryan seers represent the progressive illumination of the human soul. It is so that Shyavashwa of the house of Atri hymns Savitri, Creator, Increaser, Revealer.
Surya enlightens the mind and the thoughts with the illuminations of the Truth. He is vipra, the illumined. It is he who delivers the individual human mind from the circumscribed consciousness of self and environment and enlarges the limited movement which is imposed on it by its preoccupation with its own individuality. Therefore he is br.hat, the Large. But his illumination is not a vague light, nor does his largeness come by a confused and dissolved view of self and object; it holds in itself a clear discernment of things in their totality, their parts and their relations. Therefore he is vipáscit, the clear in perception. Men as soon as they begin to receive something of this solar illumination, strive to yoke their whole mentality and its thought-contents to the conscious existence of the divine Surya within them. That is to say, they apply, as it were, all their obscure mental state and all their erring thoughts to this Light manifested in them so that it may turn the obscurity of the mind into clearness and convert the errors of thought into those truths which they distortedly represent. This yoking becomes their Yoga. “They yoke the mind, and they yoke their thoughts, the enlightened, of (i.e. to, or so that they may be part of or belong to) the Enlightened, the Large, the Clear-perceptioned. ”
Then the Lord of Truth orders all the human energies offered up to him in the terms of the Truth; for he becomes in man a sole and sovereign Power governing all knowledge and action. Not interfered with by conflicting agencies, he governs perfectly; for he knows all manifestations, comprehends their causes, contains their law and process, compels their right result. There are seven of these sacrificial energies (Hotras) in the human being, one corresponding to each of the seven constituents of his psychological existence,—body, life, mind, super-mind, bliss, will and essential being. Their irregular action or wrong relation, caused and maintained by the obscuration of knowledge in Mind, is the source of all stumbling and unhappiness, of all evil act and evil state. Surya, Lord of Knowledge, puts each of them to its right place in the Sacrifice. “Knower of phenomena sole he arranges the sacrificial energies.”
Man thus arrives at a vast and all-embracing affirmation in himself of this divine Creator. It is implied in this passage and indicated more clearly in the next verse that the result is a right and happy creation—for all our existence is a constant creation—of the universe of man’s whole being. “Vast is the comprehensive affirmation of the god Savitri.”
Surya is the seer, the revealer. His Truth takes into its illumination all forms of things, all the phenomenal objects and experiences which constitute our world, all the figures of the universal Consciousness within and without us. It reveals the truth in them, their sense, their purpose, their justification and right use. Ordering rightly the energies of the sacrifice it creates or produces good as the law of our whole existence. For all things have their justifiable cause of being, their good use and their right enjoyment. When this truth in them is found and utilised, all things produce good for the soul, increase its welfare, enlarge its felicity. And this divine revolution is effected both in the lower physical existence and in the more complete inner life which uses the physical for its manifestation. “The Seer takes to himself all forms, he brings out (creates or manifests) good for the twofold (two-footed) , for the fourfold (four-footed) .”(4)
The discussion of it here would occupy too large a space. The process of this new creation is described in the rest of the hymn. Surya, as the creator, as the supreme good, manifests in our human consciousness its concealed heavenly summit on the levels of the pure mind, and we are able to look up above from the earth of our physical existence and are delivered from the obscurities of the night of Ignorance. He follows, sunlike, the march of the Dawn, illuminating all the regions of our being on which falls its light; for there is always needed the precursory mental illumination before the Truth itself, the supramental principle, can take possession of this lower existence. “The creator, the supremely desirable, manifests all heaven and shines pervadingly following (after or according to) the movement forward of the Dawn.”
All the other gods follow in this march of Surya and they attain to his vastness by the force of his illumination. That is to say, all the other divine faculties or potentialities in man expand with the expansion of the Truth and Light in him; in the strength of the ideal super-mind they attain to the same infinite amplitude of right becoming, right action and right knowledge. The Truth in its largeness moulds all into the terms of the infinite and universal Life, replaces with it the limited individual existence, maps out in the terms of their real being the realms of the physical consciousness which, as Savitri, it has created. This also is in us a creation, although in reality it only manifests what already exists but was concealed by the darkness of our ignorance,— just as the realms of the physical earth are concealed from our eyes by the darkness, but reveal themselves as the sun in his march follows the Dawn and measures them out one by one to the vision. “Following whose march the other gods too reach the vastness of the divinity by his strength, he who maps out entirely—that brilliant one—the earthly realms of light, the god Savitri, by his greatness.”
But it is not only the full capacity of our physical or earthly consciousness that this divine Truth illuminates and forms for a perfect action. It pervades the three luminous realms of the pure mind; it puts us in contact with all the divine possibilities of the sensations and emotions, of the intellect, of the intuitive reason and liberating the superior faculties from their limitation and constant reference to the material world fulfils our entire mental being. Its activities receive their completest manifestation; they are gathered up into the life of the complete Truth by the rays of the sun, that is to say, by the full splendour of the divine Super-Mind manifested in us. “And thou goest, O Savitri, to the three luminousnesses, and thou art perfectly expressed by the rays of the Sun (or, art gathered together by means of the rays).”
Then it is that the higher kingdom of the Immortality, Sachchidananda revealed, shines out perfectly in this world. The higher and lower are reconciled in the light of the supra-mental revelation. The Ignorance, the Night, is illumined upon both sides of our complete being, not only as in our present state upon one. This higher kingdom stands confessed in the principle of Beatitude which is for us the principle of Love and Light, represented by the god Mitra. The Lord of Truth, when he reveals himself in the full godhead, becomes the Lord of Bliss. The law of his being, the principle regulating his activities is seen to be Love; for in the right arrangement of knowledge and action everything here comes to be translated into terms of good, felicity, bliss. “And thou encompassest Night upon both sides, and thou becomest, O God, Mitra by the laws of thy action.” The Truth of the divine existence becomes eventually the sole Lord of all creation in ourselves; and by his constant visitations or by his continual progressions the Creator becomes the Increaser, Savitri becomes Pushan. He aggrandises us by a constantly progressive creation until he has illumined the whole world of our becoming. We grow into the complete, the universal, the infinite. So has Shyavashwa, of the sons of Atri, succeeded in affirming Savitri in his own being as the illuminative Truth, the creative, the progressive, the increaser of man—he who brings him out of egoistic limitation into universality, out of the finite into the infinite. “And thou hast power alone for creation; and thou becomest the Increaser,OGod, by the goings; and thou illuminest entirely all this world (literally, becoming). Shyavashwa has attained to the affirmation of thee, O Savitri.”

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The Song of the Sun

Q. Is the sun a noisy place?
A. The Sun’s boiling and bubbling gases create a noisy throbbing, and the resulting sound waves are being used by scientists to study the interior of the star.
But the sound waves are trapped inside the Sun, according to NASA scientists, and while they become visible as waves when they reach the surface, their frequencies are mostly too low to be heard by human ears — if a human were to be put in the unlikely position of being there.


CreditVictoria Roberts

The study of the Sun using sound waves is called helioseismology, because it is much like the use of seismic waves to study the interior of the Earth. The waves were discovered half a century ago.
Because space is a vacuum, the sound waves cannot not leave the Sun to be “heard” elsewhere. But scientists at Stanford University have condensed days of instrument readings of solar vibrations and speeded them up, posting them on a Web site, to let earthlings get an idea of one strand of the Sun’s bell-like or drumlike resonances.
The instrument used to collect the sounds is the Michelson Doppler Imager, on board SOHO, the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory spacecraft, which was launched into orbit in 1995.

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   Solar Sounds

These are solar sounds generated from 40 days of Michelson Doppler Imager data and processed by A. Kosovichev.
The procedure he used for generating these sounds was the following. He started with doppler velocity data, averaged over the solar disk, so that only modes of low angular degree (l = 0, 1, 2) remained. Subsequent processing removed the spacecraft motion effects, instrument tuning, and some spurious points. Then Kosovichev filtered the data at about 3 mHz to select clean sound waves (and not supergranulation and instrumental noise). Finally, he interpolated over the missing data and scaled the data (speeded it up a factor 42,000 to bring it into the audible human-hearing range (kHz)).

One Mode

(l=1,n=20, nu=2.94-3.0 mHz)

Three Modes

(l=0,n=21, l=1,n=20, l=2,n=20, nu=2.95-3.05 mHz)

All Low-Degree Modes

(l=0,1,2, and 3)

Courtesy and Link:

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"The Sun is playing a secret melody, hidden inside itself, that produces a widespread throbbing motion of its surface. The sounds are coursing through the Sun's interior, causing the entire globe, or parts of it, to move in and out, slowly and rhythmically like the regular rise and fall of tides in a bay or of a beating heart." (Kenneth R. Lang)

Hear the Sun Sing

Have you ever wondered what the Sun would sound like if you could hear it?
Our Sun lies 93,000,000 miles away, surrounded by the vacuum of space. Sound won't travel through space, of course. But with the right instrument, scientists can "hear" pulsations from the Sun.
The entire Sun vibrates from a complex pattern of acoustical waves, much like a bell. If your eyes were sharp enough, you could see a bell's surface jiggle in complex patterns as the waves bounced around within it.
Likewise, astronomers at Stanford University can record acoustical pressure waves in the Sun by carefully tracking movements on the Sun's surface. To do this, they use an instrument called a Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI), mounted on the SOHO spacecraft, circling the Sun 1,000,000 miles from Earth.
The Sun's acoustical waves bounce from one side of the Sun to the other in about two hours, causing the Sun's surface to oscillate, or wiggle up and down. Because these sound waves travel underneath the Sun's surface, they are influenced by conditions inside the Sun. So scientists can use the oscillations to learn more about how the structure of the Sun's interior shapes its surface.
The Sun's sound waves are normally at frequencies too low for the human ear to hear. To be able to hear them, the scientists sped up the waves 42,000 times -- and compressed 40 days of vibrations into a few seconds. What you'll be hearing are just a few dozen of the 10 million resonances echoing inside the Sun.

Courtesy and Link:
http://solar-center.stanford.edu/singing/*                     *                       *

Sounds of solar oscillations (in MP3 format)

Sounds of solar oscillations (in AIFF format)

The sounds are obtained from 40-days of MDI disk-averaged data sped up by a factor of 42,000.

Courtesy and Link:


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Active Learning Exercises in Planetary
and Solar Astronomy

Copyright 1996
National Optical Astronomy Observatory
Volume 1, Number 1


NEW! Download an Updated Version of this module in PDF format.
This lesson module was written as part of a NASA IDEA grant titled Active Learning Exercises in Planetary and Solar Astronomy for K-3 Students. NOAO astronomers worked with students and teachers of the Satori School in Tucson, AZ, to present eight topics in the elementary classrooms. Each presentation included a discussion with the astronomers and a hands-on, active learning exercise. This module, Solar Music - Helioseismology, encourages the students to realize you can learn about an object by listening to it. Astonomers listen to the Sun's heartbeat to learn about the inside of the Sun.
This module was developed by NSO astronomer Dr. Frank Hill and is intended to be a resource for other astronomers venturing into classrooms. Please contact the NOAO Educational Outreach Office (outreach@noao.edu) if you would like more information about this module or others developed through this program.


We used the following 5 color slides for this lesson; Click the images below for a larger, more detailed image [28 to 84K].
Slide 1: Image of actual solar surface
Slide 2: Computer image of slice through sun showing how sound bounces inside sun
Slide 3: Computer image of cutaway of sun showing up and down pattern of one solar musical note
Slide 4: Image of actual solar surface showing the up and down pattern of all 10 million solar musical notes together at one instant
Slide 5: Image of the "keyboard" of solar music.


Image of the solar surface
Today we would like to teach you about solar music. The sun is filled with sound, and we can learn about its insides by studying this sound. In fact, this is the ONLY way we can learn about its inside because the light we see from the sun comes only from its outside. This picture shows how the outside of the sun looks to us (show slide #1). But, this picture does not tell us anything about the inside of the sun. That�s because the picture was made using light that comes only from the outside of the sun. Since the sound is inside the sun underneath the part we can see, we can use sound to learn about the inside of the sun.
Have any of you ever heard the sun? (If they answer "yes", ask them what it sounded like. They may say it sounds like a bird or a rooster, since sunrise generally wakes the birds up. Respond to this answer by saying that the sun causes the birds to wake up and chirp, but that is not solar music.) Whether they answer "yes" or "no" say: I will be playing a recording of solar sound for you in a little while.
Computer image of a slice through the sun showing how sound bounces inside sun
Have any of you heard echoes? Where? (The most likely answer will be "outdoors at a canyon", but ask them if they have heard echoes anywhere else. The answer you are looking for is "inside a room.") Just like sound echoing all around in a room or a concert hall, sound is bouncing all around and echoing inside the sun. Here is a picture created with a computer that shows how sound echoes inside the sun. (show slide #2).
Sound is a vibration, it moves things up and down, back and forth. I have a Slinky™ here, and I need some help to show you how vibrations move things back and forth. (Get a helper to hold down one end of a slinky on a desk top. Take the other end, and shake it horizontally once to get a wave traveling down to and reflecting off the stationary end.) Did you see how the vibration moved the Slinky back and forth? Also, did you see how the vibration bounced off the end that was being held down? The bouncing is what causes echoes, and it also happens inside the sun when the sound hits the surface like in the picture. Also, you can actually see the vibration because it makes the Slinky move.
Computer image of cutaway of sun showing up and down pattern of one solar musical note
The sun is like a huge musical instrument. It rings like a bell, and vibrates like an organ pipe. Does anybody know how many keys or musical notes a piano has? (Answer is 88). Just like a piano has 88 keys or musical notes, the sun has 10 million keys or notes. Astronomers are measuring the solar music in order to determine what its heart is like. This is like listening to a song to understand the singer. Here is a picture made with a computer showing the pattern of up and down movement from a single solar musical note. (show slide #3) The red and blue colors were put into the picture so you can tell which parts of the sun are moving up (blue), and which are going down (red).
Image of actual solar surface showing the up and down pattern
of all 10 million solar musical notes together at one instant
Since the vibrations of the solar sound make parts of the outside of the sun move up and down, astronomers can study the sound by looking at the sun. This is good, since there is no air between the sun and the Earth and so there is no way for us to actually hear the sound. But, we can use special cameras to watch the outside of the sun move up and down. Here is a snapshot of the outside of the sun showing the up and down areas from all 10 million solar musical notes (show slide #4).
Image of the keyboard of solar music
This picture (show slide #5) is a way for astronomers to sort out and look at all 10 million notes of the solar music at once. This picture sort of looks like the rainbow pictures you saw earlier, and is really a spectrum of sound rather than light from the sun. You can see a bunch of dots at the left side of this picture. These dots are individual solar notes, like the keys on a piano keyboard. At the right of the picture, the notes blend together and you can't see them very well.
Now, I am going to play an audio cassette of solar sound for you. This cassette was made with a computer using a few of the notes in the last picture I showed you. You can't really dance to it, but it tells us a lot about the inside of the sun.
You can download sound files of the sun from Stanford Solar Center's The Singing Sun.


Astronomers can get information about the inside of the sun because different objects have different sounds. The way things are changes how they will sound. I am now going to teach you some of the things we can learn about objects by listening to the sounds they make. I will be using some things called musical triangles.
Here are three musical triangles (Get 3 students at the front to hold up the 3 different size triangles).
What do you notice about them? What is different about them?
They are all different sizes
Which one do you think will make the highest musical note?
The smallest one
Which one do you think will make the lowest musical note?
The largest one
Do you think the musical note of this (middle) triangle will be higher or lower than this (smallest) one?
Do you think the musical note of this (middle) triangle will be higher or lower than this (largest) one?
Listen again as I play all three of them in size order (Do it a few times) Now, close your eyes, and listen as I play the three triangles in some order. I want you to listen, and then tell me what size order I played them in (i.e. middle, large, small) Notice that you could tell me what the size of the triangle was just by listening to it without having to see it! The size of the triangle affects how it sounds. In general, large things produce lower musical tones than small things. A chihuahua dog has a higher pitched bark than a St. Bernard.
Next, I will show you how attaching something to the triangle changes the way it sounds. Here is the small triangle again, and here is another small triangle just like this one except I have attached a small clip to it. Here's the sound of the triangle without anything attached. (Strike the small triangle without the clip) Now, here's the sound with the clip attached. (strike the triangle with the clip attached)
How did the two sound different?
The one with the clip attached sounds "dull" or "muffled" compared to the "bright" ringing tone of the unclamped triangle.
The sound has changed because a lot of the tones made by the unclamped triangle have been removed by the clamp. Close your eyes and tell me if I have struck the clamped or the unclamped triangle. Notice that you could tell me if something extra was attached to the triangle just by listening to it.
Finally, I will show you that a spinning triangle sounds different from one that is standing still. Here's the sound of a triangle standing still. (Ring the middle triangle) Now I am going to wind this rubber band up and spin the triangle after I hit it. (Do it but PRACTICE BEFORE THE LESSON!)
What do you notice that is different about the sound?
The spinning triangle will produce a wavering tone whose loudness seems to go up and down.
The sound is different because if something makes a sound while it is moving, it changes the tone of the note heard by someone standing still. You may have noticed that the pitch of a police siren changes as the police car passes you. It's the same thing. Close your eyes and tell me if I am spinning the triangle. Moving things sound different than when they are standing still.


Bottle Harmonica: Here, the students will construct musical instruments using plastic bottles filled with water. Organize the students into groups of 2 or 3. Distribute the bottles, 1 to each student (2-3 per group). Have the students fill the bottles with various levels of water. Then have them blow across the bottles and ask them what they notice about the sounds that the bottles make. They should notice that when there is more water in the bottle, the pitch of the sound is higher. If they have different size bottles, have them blow across the empty bottles and again ask them what they notice about the sounds. Smaller bottles make higher pitched sounds.
Slinky Vibrations: Have the students experiment with making waves in Slinkies. Stretch a Slinky across a desk, and have one student hold down an end. The other student shakes the free end of the Slinky in various ways to create different wave patterns. Have them first try a single shake so a pulse bounces off the stationary end. Then they can vary the frequency of the shaking to create different harmonics. Ask them to notice how the number of bends in the Slinky changes as they shake the Slinky faster. There will be more bends as they go faster. Be prepared to untangle Slinkies! It is possible to set up a standing wave that seems to remain still.


Ask the students what they have learned today. Re-emphasize that the sound made by objects tells us something about them. For example, big things (triangles, bottles, dogs) sound lower in pitch than small things. Mention again that the sun is filled with sound, and that astronomers are listening to it to understand what's going on inside it.


For further reading you may begin with the following sources:
  • Browne MW. "Deep solar rumblings may offer key to sun's inner structure." The New York Times, B5, 24-Oct-95.
  • Leibacher JW, Noyes RW, Toomre J and Ulrich RK. "Helioseismology." Scientific American 253(3):48-57, 1985.
  • Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG)
Support for this work was provided by NASA through grant number ED-90020.01-94A from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Incorporated, under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

Courtesy and Link:


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Prières de la Mère de Sri Aurobindo Ashram

(Courtesy : Réponses de la Mère à une monitrice, pp. 85-86)